Following the defeat of the naval attacks, Allied planners turned to an amphibious landing in order to open the way through to Istanbul. If sufficient troops could be landed, it was reasoned, the troops could march overland from the Gallipoli Peninsula to Istanbul. Faced with an Allied capture of its capital, the government of the Ottoman Empire would be forced to surrender.
Planning for the amphibious landings commenced following the withdrawal of the Allied warships from the Sea of Marmara. During this time, Allied planners had to assemble troops (some from forces in Egypt, whilst some came direct from Britain), ships, and supplies. The resulting 6 weeks delay allowed the Turkish defenders to recover and consolidate after the naval battles.
The main land forces were provided by the Australians and New Zealanders of the ANZAC Corps (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps), then training in Egypt with the expectation that they would be sent to France; the British 29th Infantry, the British Royal Naval Division; and the French Oriental Expeditionary Corps.
|File:Australian 9th and 10th battalions Egypt December 1914 AWM C02588.jpeg
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The landings were made in the early hours of 25 April 1915. The British 29th Division landed at Cape Helles on the tip of the Peninsula in order to advance northwards to capture the Turkish forts at Kilitbahir on the Dardanelles side of the Peninsula. The British forces landed at five beaches designated S, V, W, X and Y Beaches. The Anzacs landed slightly north of the British, on the Aegean side of the peninsula, at a place now known as Anzac Cove. The Anzacs were tasked with advancing across the peninsula and cutting off reinforcement to or retreating from Kilitbahir. Diversionary attacks were made by the French forces and the Royal Naval Division; these forces later were used to reinforce the British landings at Cape Helles.
Each landing was met with differing degrees of resistance from Turkish forces. At Y Beach, the landings were unopposed, but the forces were evacuated the next day as Ottoman reinforcements arrived. At V and W Beaches, determined Turkish troops inflicted heavy casualties on the British troops as they attempted to land. At V Beach, troops of the Royal Munster Fusiliers and Royal Hampshire Regiments were landed from a converted collier (SS River Clyde), which was run around to allow the troops to disembark via ramps onto a bridge of small boats and onto the beach. Meanwhile, troops of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers were to land from open boats. Unfortunately, the SS River Clyde grounded some distance from the shore directly under the machine guns manned by the Turkish defenders. The disembarking troops were massacred as they attempted to disembark the ship and down the ramps. By amazing acts of bravery by British soldiers and sailors in the face of near certain death, the British were able to force a landing and fight their way off the beaches. Six Victoria Crosses were awarded for acts of heroism on V Beach.
V Beach was defended by a 63 man detachment of the Turkish 26th Infantry Regiment (26th Regiment, 3rd Battlaion, 10th Company, 1st Platoon). The majority of the defenders were killed, largely by the naval bombardment delivered by the Allied warships supporting the landings. The surviving defenders withdrew after 10 hours. 
A further six Victoria Crosses were awarded to British soldiers for heroism on W Beach. The Lancashire Fusiliers landing from open boats on W Beach were met by barbed wire and entrenched defenders. Eventually the British were able to overwhelm the Turkish defenders.
At Anzac Cove, the Anzacs also landed from open boats. In the confusion of the pre-dawn darkness, the boats landed further north than intended. Nevertheless, the Anzacs landed and scaled the cliffs in the face of determined resistance. The local Turkish commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Mustafa Kemal, led a counter-attack in the hope of driving the Anzacs back to the beaches. He ordered his men to die rather than retreat.
Early Battles of the Gallipoli Campaign