Almost 400,000 casualties were incurred by the opposing forces: over 21,000 British (dead), 27,169 French, 28,150 Australian, 7,473 New Zealand, 4,779 Indian, 142 Newfoundland, and 392,338 Turkish casualties. After more than a year of Naval and Land operations, the Allied forces were soundly defeated. Further, the Allied leadership was revealed as (at best) disorganised if not dangerously incompetent. Nevertheless, the rank and file soldiers on both sides displayed extraordinary courage and resilience: the Turkish soldier fought ferociously in defence of his country, whilst the Allied soldier (in most cases, wartime volunteers) fought with reckless courage in the cause of patriotism.
Modern nations of Turkey, Australia and New Zealand revere the campaign as defining moment in the respective national histories. For Turkey, the campaign and the actions of the Turkish commander (Mustafa Kemal, who later became President of the post-war Turkish Republic) symbolise the birth of the modern Turkish identity. For the new nations of Australia and New Zealand, the Anzac ‘spirit’ embodied heroic national qualities – and the campaign is commemorated annually on Anzac day (25 April).